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Melanoma and skin cancer: dangerous diseases that you should know everything about

Melanoma and skin cancer: dangerous diseases that you should know everything about

CrimeaPRESS reports:

Melanoma and skin cancer are malignant tumors that develop from skin cells. Despite the fact that both diseases are cancerous, they have their own characteristics, origin and characteristic signs.

Let us note right away: the chances of a cure for melanoma and skin cancer can be high with early diagnosis and timely treatment — https://melanomaunit.moscow/. Regular medical examinations, preventative care, modern treatment methods and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can significantly increase these chances. Contact a specialist at the first sign of changes in your skin and follow your doctor’s recommendations for best results.

So, what do you need to know in order to promptly replace the symptoms of these diseases?

Melanoma

Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer that develops from melanocytes, the cells that produce the pigment melanin. Melanoma can quickly spread to other parts of the body, including lymph nodes and internal organs.

Causes

  • Ultraviolet radiation: Overexposure to sunlight or artificial sources of UV radiation (such as tanning beds) is a major risk factor.
  • genetics: the presence of melanoma in close relatives increases the risk of the disease.
  • presence of moles: a large number or atypical moles can cause the development of melanoma.
  • Immunodeficiency: Decreased immune function may increase the risk of developing melanoma.

Symptoms

  • change in moles: growth, change in shape, color or size of a mole.
  • asymmetry: one half of the mole is different from the other.
  • jagged edges: The mole has jagged or blurred edges.
  • Discoloration: The mole has an uneven color, including shades of black, brown, pink, red or white.
  • diameter: mole more than 6 mm in diameter.
  • evolution: any change over time (size, shape, color, feel).

Skin cancer

Skin cancer includes several types of malignant neoplasms that develop from different types of skin cells. The most common types are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC):

  • origin: develops from basal cells located in the lower layer of the epidermis.
  • Symptoms: Small, shiny nodules or plaques that may bleed or crust. Often found on the face, ears, neck and other exposed skin.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC):

  • origin: develops from squamous cells that make up the upper layer of the epidermis.
  • Symptoms: Firm, red nodules or scaly plaques that may ulcerate or bleed. Often found on the face, ears, neck, lips and hands.

Causes:

  • ultraviolet radiation: a major risk factor, as for melanoma.
  • Chemicals: Skin exposure to carcinogens such as arsenic.
  • immunodeficiency: decreased immune function.
  • Pre-cancerous conditions: such as actinic keratoses (scaly spots caused by the sun).

Prevention and diagnosis

Prevention

  • Sun protection: use sunscreen, wear protective clothing, avoid direct sunlight during peak hours.
  • Regular check-ups: skin self-examination and regular visits to a dermatologist.
  • avoiding tanning salons: avoiding the use of artificial sources of UV radiation.

Diagnostics

  • dermatoscopy: the use of a special device to examine the skin in detail.
  • biopsy: removal of a tissue sample for histological examination.

Treatment

Melanoma

  • surgical removal: the main method of treatment, especially in the early stages.
  • immunotherapy: the use of drugs to boost the immune response to a tumor.
  • targeted therapy: the use of drugs that target specific mutations in melanoma cells.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy: used in later stages or in cases of metastasis.
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Skin cancer (BCR and RCC)

  • surgical removal: often involves microsurgical techniques such as Mohs surgery.
  • cryotherapy: freezing the tumor with liquid nitrogen.
  • photodynamic therapy: the use of photosensitive drugs and light to kill cancer cells.
  • local preparations: the use of creams or ointments containing chemotherapy substances.

Both forms of skin cancer can be effectively treated if detected early, so regular monitoring of the condition of the skin and timely consultation with a doctor if suspicious changes appear are extremely important.

There are specialized clinics and centers that diagnose and treat melanoma and skin cancer. These medical institutions offer a wide range of services, including advanced diagnostic methods, innovative treatment approaches and personalized medical care:

What are the chances of curing melanoma and skin cancer?

The chances of a cure for melanoma and other skin cancers depend on many factors, including the stage of the disease, the type of cancer, the patient’s overall fitness, and the timing of treatment. Here are a few key aspects that can affect prognosis and ways to improve your chances of cure:

Disease stage

  • Early stage: Melanoma and other skin cancers detected in the early stages have a high chance of being cured. For example, melanoma at the first stage can be successfully cured in 90-95% of cases.
  • Late stages: In advanced stages, the chances of cure decrease. With metastatic melanoma (stage IV), the chances of a complete cure are much lower, but long periods of remission are still possible with modern treatments.

Type of skin cancer

  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common and less aggressive type of skin cancer. Early treatment is almost always successful.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): More aggressive than BCC, but also has a high chance of cure if diagnosed early.
  • melanoma: a more aggressive and dangerous type of skin cancer that requires early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment.

Tumor location and size

  • Tumors that are small and located on the superficial layers of the skin are easier to treat.
  • deep and large tumors, as well as those that have spread to lymph nodes or other organs, require a more complex approach.

General health of the patient

  • patients with good general health have a better chance of successful treatment and recovery.

How great is the risk of recurrence?

The risk of getting skin cancer, including melanoma, again can vary depending on various factors, such as the type and stage of the original disease, treatment, and the patient’s overall health. Although cancer can recur, this does not mean that it will will definitely come back.

Of course, there is a risk of getting skin cancer again, but following recommendations for regular medical monitoring, UV protection and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can significantly reduce this risk. It is important to be attentive to your health, conduct regular self-examinations and follow the instructions of specialists to minimize the likelihood of relapse.

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